Monthly Archives: August 2012

3 Types Of Psychotherapy

Psychotherapy is basically just an interpersonal relationship between the therapist and the person but in a more complex point, it is described as something that addresses mental health issues through conversing with a psychologist in order to learn more about your behavior, feelings, thoughts and overall mental condition. It is helpful in some people to properly respond to difficult situations and have control over their life and is applicable to all, not only to those with clinically diagnosed conditions.


There are a lot of particular kinds of psychotherapy characterized by its own approach that depends on each patient’s circumstance. Psychotherapy is also commonly referred to as therapy, counselling or talk therapy.

Most of the time, psychotherapy utilizes verbal conversation in order to diagnose and solve issues like communication, relationship and behavior change.

*Cognitive Therapy - helps a person solve problems through identifying dysfunctional emotions and mindset. Compared to behavior therapy, this concentrates on the person’s thoughts and how those affect the emotions. This is effective in altering negative thoughts that lead the person to act unproductively or feel bad in general. The idea is, if you could think differently you will feel better and act more positively.


*Behavior Therapy - mainly used to cure usual mental concerns like anxiety, depression or paranoia. This approach is largely based on the philosophical theory of behaviorism — the belief that human behavior is directly dependent on psychological issues. Behavior therapy is applied to alter a person’s responses and overall behavior for the better. It seeks to identify what we do that might cause the inappropriate behavior and how all of it affects us.


*Psychoanalysis or Psychodynamic Therapy - this is where therapists work with the person to probe his mind and understand its psychological functioning and address any internal conflict. Psychoanalysis aims to explore the subconscious mind to gain more insight into the person’s behavior and needs, thus enabling more control over how he handles and copes conflicts. It helps the person improve through learning what is happening inside him and how he interacts with the therapist himself.

Critics of psychotherapy as a cure are asserting that it is not the counselling sessions that help a person but the simple passing of time, ergo it is a clever ripoff. In addition, they believe that psychotherapy is turning out to replace the normal interaction that a person should have among family and friends.


Emotional Intelligence May Cause Job Burnout


An employee’s job performance is dependent upon many things, includingemotional intelligence (EI). “It has been established that the emotions an employee experiences in their organization affect his/her psychological and physical health, and also that employee’s attitude towards duties, the organization, and work-related accomplishments,” said Tae Won Moon of the Department of Business Administration at Hongik University in Seoul, South Korea, and lead author of a recent study examining EI on the job. Burnout, also termed emotional exhaustion, is a key factor in determining how emotional intelligence affects job performance. “In our study we used the words emotional exhaustion and burnout interchangeably. Burnout includes three distinct states:  emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and diminished personal accomplishment,” said Won Moon. “Among these three states, emotional exhaustion is at the core of burnout.” When an employee is forced to exhibit emotions to customers that are insincere, such as smiling to a customer when having a bad day, causes emotional dissonance. “Researchers have suggested that sustained emotional dissonance reduces an individual’s self-identity or even promotes a strong contrary (pseudo) identity and this leads to feelings of stress, frustration, or burnout/emotional exhaustion,” said Won Moon. High levels of EI are linked to increased coping skills, on and off the job. Therefore, Won Moon theorized that low levels of EI would lead to emotional exhaustion or burnout.

For the study, Won Moon interviewed 295 employees from a South Korean department store. The average age of the participants was 38, and all had been employed for at least one year. The results revealed that three key components ofEI, optimism, social skills and emotional validation, were negatively linked to emotional exhaustion. “We speculate that individuals who are good at utilizing their emotions by incorporating emotion in thought, and understanding emotions by employing emotional knowledge, may be more likely to experience emotional exhaustion,” said Won Moon. “Since they put more effort into making emotional facilitation in thinking, and analyzing their own and others’ emotions, this process may generate a feeling of stress, frustration, or burnout/emotional exhaustion.”


Moon, Tae Won, and Won-Moo Hur. “EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE, EMOTIONAL EXHAUSTION, AND JOB PERFORMANCE.” Social Behavior & Personality: An International Journal 39.8 (2011): 1087-096. Print.

Cultural and Diversity Issues in Counselling

Suggested by Dr. Turnoi Turjakuunnen


There are a number of professional fields involving counseling - the medical doctor, a psychologist or even a psychiatrist. It is an essential part of their work to help their clients (patients) deal with their way of life with the major objective of physical and mental health in mind. They also help those suffering by counseling (among other things). It means caring for other people in a professional way. This is the essemtial “pastoral” element in their work - caring for the sake of well-being of others. There are two fields that come to my mind where this pastoral element of caring for others is involved - that of a pastor of a congregation involved in all aspects (Christian Counseling) that sometimes may also mean active crisis intervention in certain situations. The other field non-medical field is the work of a teacher - especially a teacher dealing with older and more “mature” students about to enter the hall of their own lives in preparing for it (ca.17 - 23/25 years aged students). While at college or university, they are taking basic decisions on which field to work in after graduation and what to do else in their lives ahead of them.

In the Western tradition, a teacher at that developmental stage of his/her students is mainly confined to his role of transmitting/transferring knowledge in a specialised area of study. This is a very limited and less “holistic” role as students in that period of their lives have to deal with a number of important issues in addition to mere knowledge acquisition - the first love; gradual emancipation from parental home and the parents, their views and values as well as many other existential issues of primary importance to them. In the Asian, and especially in the Confucian tradition, a teacher’s role is more than that of mere knowledge transfer and is also aimed at helping the student to grow as a person. In that sense, it is more “holistic”.

The process of self-growth and gradual maturing of a student as a person is a process effecting mind (knowledge, skills, competencies), heart (emotions/feelings) and hands (implementation of what has been learned, acting and behaving in challenges of daily life). A Western teacher not only in China but also in Korea, for example, may be expected to fill this more holistic role he is not used to in his own Western tradition. And if so, the Western teacher can only do a good job then if he/she knows to act within the cultural framework of his/her student/s - a framework that may be an alien one to him/her. The Foreword in this e-book clearly states: “Cultural identity requires new attitudes toward cognitive, affective, and behavioral processes” (p. vi, ibd). If I change this sentence slightly and say, “Cultural diversity requires new attitudes toward cognitive, affective, and behavioral processes (different from the teacher’s own culture)”, then the reason why foreign teachers in China and elsewhere should read the book becomes very clear: You as a teacher need toknow and undersand the basic cultural patterns and settings of your student if you really want to give some advice that is helpful in his part of the world!

Hence, the book is an introductory text to CROSS-CULTURAL COUNSELING. I hope it would help those among you who view their role as a teacher in a more holistic sense. You will win the hearts of your students if you meet them half the way in this important phase of first self-orientation in their lives.